Thursday, February 20, 2020
Students need to produce an industry report, (BMW) highlighting their research on the industry, the main players, their understanding of trends and their suitability - Essay Example activity vehicles; and innovative features such as, dynamic stability control or the integrated driving system introduced by BMW, known as the I-Drive (Fleischmann, Ferber and Henrich, 2006). The growing demands of customers for individual configuration specifically in premium cars have made automobile companies like, BMW, to come up with creative ideas so as to stand apart in this fierce competition and gain significant competitive advantage. Alongside the classical markets in North America, Europe and Japan, newer markets such as, China and the Eastern Europe, are also emerging. The product life cycle in emerging markets are supposed to be dissimilar from the one that is witnessed in already developed markets. This provides big opportunities for companies like, BMW, to sell models, which have been discontinued in the established markets, in these relatively newer markets. BMW has been implementing effective strategies in order to set up their production sites throughout the globe for bringing their production closer to markets and thus, satisfy growing needs and demands of the customer base. This has enabled them to accrue benefits by attaining country specific advantages. Example of such advantages attained by the company include incentives for investments and accessibility to cheap labour that they have obtained by gaining entry into emerging markets such as, India and China (Fleischmann, Ferber and Henrich, 2006). This study involves a thorough analysis of BMWÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic management. The following sections will discuss BMWÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic planning aspects and their business model will be subsequently explained. Thereafter, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of current trend in the industry will be explained. The report will also include PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces analysis of the automobile manufacturer and lastly, a recommendation will be provided. The BMW Group headquartered in Munich, Germany, is primarily engaged in the manufacturing and sales of BMW, Rolls Royce
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
The European sovereign debt crisis during 2010-2011 - Essay Example Historically, when a sovereign nationÃ¢â¬â¢s governmental debt exceeds the annual GDP of the country, the risk increases proportionately that the country will default on all or a portion of the debt requirements, particularly in the circumstances where the debt instruments are held by foreigners or in another currency than the national coin. The ability of sovereign nations to generally print money without formal external control is well established and the example of Zimbabwe is an extreme example of this, but the United States has also reached a debt level that is over $15.5 trillion USD or near 100% of the annual GDP outlook, while the economy is also declining and recessionary,. The U.S. Federal Reserve may also print money to bailout banks in the U.S. and abroad, as it has done following the Lehman bankruptcy, but the Eurozone situation is more complex. Nations like Greece now have their debt valued in Euros rather than Drachma and the sovereign is no longer able to print mone y, deflate the currency, and cover government debts in the manner of the U.S. central bank. Instead, it appears as if Greece will either default or be bailed out by other Eurozone members, while Wall Street and stock markets around the world react daily to these events and news stories as they herald serious consequences for the international economy that is interconnected during the era of globalization. Political Dynamics of the Eurozone Economy The Eurozone is a political experiment that involves a common currency (the Euro) and a number of sovereign nations that retain their political autonomy in budgetary and domestic affairs while moving together towards ever greater unity in government on the supra-national level. This dichotomy has led to the nations of the Eurozone abandoning their national currencies, but still operating domestically with differing levels of economic production, taxation, social expenditures, and national debt levels. The U.K. and Switzerland remain outsid e of the Eurozone and under their own traditional currencies, the Pound and Swiss Franc. Germany, France, and other Northern European nations are generally seen as being economically stronger than the Southern European countries, with the acronym Ã¢â¬Å"PIGSÃ¢â¬ being used for the countries Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain with the worst economic outlook, budgetary problems, and largest national debt requirements in comparison to GDP. Ireland has been considered a part of this group by some (PIIGS), as the country experienced generally the same problems in an overheated banking, real estate, and finance sector which formed a bubble and popped, leaving the taxpayers and national government responsible for the bailout. Yet, while Ireland and Iceland have already crashed previously before the 2008-2009 meltdown in their national economies due to the problems in financial regulation and overextension of risk taking via leverage in investment banking, the
Monday, January 27, 2020
History of Indias Economy History of Indian Economy Journey of Indian economy from a devastated nation to a developing worldwide economy is a moving illustration for some creating countries. Keeping in mind the end goal to comprehend Indias financial voyage, it is vital to shed some light on Indias political and budgetary history. Following 200 years of British standard, India turned into a free sovereign country in 1947. This recently conceived country confronted various issues including a smashed economy, a negligible rate of education and horrific destitution. It was a mission unimaginable for Indian pioneers, however Sardar Patel, Nehru and others converted India into a common and vote based country. To better comprehend Indias economic development; its economic history ought to be separated into two stages, the initial 45 years after the autonomy and the most recent twenty years as a free market economy. Throughout the initial 45 years after freedom, Indias economy was separated into two unique fragments, private and public. The private area possessed and worked little to medium size organizations and commercial ventures ensured by the administration and the legislature dealt with everything else. The legislature was responsible for the vast majority of the buyer administrations including transportation, for example, aerial shuttles, railroads and nearby transportation, correspondence administrations, for example, postal, phone and broadcast, radio and TV, and social administrations, for example, training and medicinal services. The proposition of the legislature was to give these administrations, at a sensible expense, and additionally vocation. India received a five-year impro vement plan from its closest associate, the Soviet Union, with a specific end goal to enhance framework, agrarian handling, human services, and instruction; however the advancement was greatly moderate because of Indias fair framework. Indias economy and political framework experienced an extreme emergency throughout the time of Indira Gandhi and her Congress Party guideline. Throughout her organization, there was no economic advancement due to an absence of regard for economic change. Gandhi and her Congress Party gave careful consideration to how to stay in force as opposed to tackling Indias economic and social issues. In 1975, Gandhi captured resistance pioneers, forced oversight on the press and suspended races. Throughout this time, economic development stagnated and far reaching defilement turned into the standard. At long last, bowing down to huge inward and outer weight, she proclaimed a general decision in 1977. Gandhi and her Congress party lost that race. In a couple of years, she returned into force again and her child Rajiv Gandhi assumed control after her death, as PM. He stayed in force until he was additionally murdered in a shell impact and Indias economy was totally overlooked. Throughout the ear ly 1990s, Indias economy started to decline and was confronted with developing expansion, unemployment and neediness and truly low outside trade hold. The breakdown of the Soviet Union altogether affected Indians economy in light of the fact that the Soviets were Indias significant exchanging accomplice and a key supplier of ease oil. Accordingly, India needed to purchase oil from the free market. India was accepting an enormous settlement of remote trade from Indians working in the Middle East, yet the Gulf War sent many Indian labourers back home bringing about an immense gouge in Indias outside store. Thusly, Indias remote trade store tumbled to a low of $240 million, simply enough to backing just two weeks of imports. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank offered help to India in return for economic changes. The legislature used up choices lastly, the administration needed to transform its shut-entryway economic arrangements in 1991. Luckily, nobody from the Gandhi family was in force to settle on choices for the nation and Prime Minister Narasimha Rao took steps towards liberalization and privatization to change Indias economy. Manmohan Singh, who was the money priest around then went ahead and presented a few economic changes. He brought down levy levels, changed conversion scale approach, changed modern permitting strategy and likewise loose Indias outside immediate financing (FDI) arrangement. These changes opened the entryways for multinational organizations to put resources into India. India accepted positive reactions from worldwide financial specialists. When the 1991 changes, remote value proprietorship was limited to 40 percent and the exchange of engineering was important to work together in India. These hindrances were evacuated for outside organizations. Numerous multinational organizations exploited Indias new economic strategies and expanded their stakes to more than 51 percent in their subsidiarie s bringing about a few fold expand in outside immediate financing in only three years. Demographics: The current populace of the Republic of India is evaluated to be about 1.27 billion individuals, which is an expansion of something like 2.3% from the last record of the populace. Historically in the course of the last a large portion of a century, the number of inhabitants in India has been short of what the number of inhabitants in China. However, lately, the number of inhabitants in India has been expanding substantially more than the number of inhabitants in China has, so the populace crevice is moderating diminishing between the two nations. In view of the aggregate area territory and the aggregate populace of the nation, the populace thickness of India is something like 1001 individuals for every square mile. According to age the population of India can be divided in to the following categories Age Structure Years Percentage Male Female 0-14 28.9 187,236,677 165,219,615 15-24 18.2 117,385,009 104,516,448 25-54 40.4 253,642,261 239,219,931 55-64 6.9 42,307,170 41,785,413 65 and above 5.7 32,992,850 36,494,985 Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The Economy of India is the tenth-biggest on the planet by ostensible GDP and the third-biggest by purchasing power parity. Indian Economy is second third biggest in Asia in term of purchasing power parity and Nominal GDP and biggest Economy in South Asia. It is the worlds second quickest developing-real economy simply after China, with development rates averaging 7.7% in the course of recent years Unemployment rate Unemployment records in India are kept by the Ministry of Labour and Employment of India. From 1983 till 2013, Unemployment rates in India found the middle value of 7.6 percent arriving at a record-breaking-high of 9.4 percent in December 2010 and a record low of 3.8 Percent in December 2013. In India, the unemployment rate measures the amount of individuals heartily searching for work as a rate of the work energy. The amount of unemployed persons in India diminished to 39963 thousand in 2009 from 39974 thousand in 2010. Unemployed persons in India arrived at the midpoint of 36933 thousand from 1985 until 2012, arriving at a record-breaking-high of 41750 thousand in 2001 and a record low of 24861 thousand in 1985. In India, unemployed persons are people who are without a vocation and eagerly trying to work. India has a Gini coefficient of 36.8 The check of individuals being without work is on the ascent in India as economic stoppage and slower business development exercises cast a shadow on job era, say specialists. Showing drowsiness in the nations occupation showcase, the International Labor Organization (ILO) has said in its late report that the unemployment situation in India throughout the most recent two years has been demonstrating a climbing pattern. The exchange rate An exchange rate has a counter currency and a base currency. In an immediate quotation, the remote currency is the base currency and the provincial currency is the counter currency. In an aberrant quotation, the local currency is the base currency and the outside currency is the counter currency. Most exchange rates utilize the US dollar as the base currency and different coinage as the counter currency. Correspondingly India likewise does the same. The business cycle The primary venture in the economics of business cycles is to secure `stylised realities about the qualities of business cycle variances. When these are known, elective models could be judged on the degree they can anticipate these stylised certainties. Concerning there is the inquiry of structural conversion of the economy. There was an old Indian macroeconomics which agonized over distinctive things. In late decades, the economy has changed in basic ways: the economy has gotten to be basically open, the part of agribusiness has subsided, a budgetary framework has happened and private choices of firms that are formed by fiscal markets now overwhelm variances of venture. It seems evident a farming-ruled economy, where horticulture is 12% of GDP, the part of rainstorm stuns in GDP ought to blur away, which ought to matter for the ghostly properties of business cycle changes. Different sorts of structural change may not change stylised certainties excessively. The three parts which appear to be the reasons of unfriendly impact on the business cycle of India are: (a) The decrease in the offer of farming; (b) Investment/ stock cycles established in the conduct of private firms and budgetary markets and (c) Capital record coordination. The blurring ceaselessly of agribusiness gave a decrease in the instability of GDP. Speculation and yield are currently emphatically connected because of the new financing/stock cycle that is established in the private segment. Ace-cyclicality of capital streams aides clarify higher utilization instability. A lot of learning in Indian economics was rendered old when India changed from being a shut and poor nation to being an open and center-salary economy. Consumer spending patterns The purchasers habits of spending in India are definitely diverse when contrasted with the western world. Ordinarily, Indians are very economical in the matter of utilizing their assets, and they emphatically put stock in reusing wherever conceivable. Case in point, a nearby merchant might provide for you sustenance wrapped in daily papers. Despite the fact that the public transportation offices are used to the greatest, individuals lean toward buying little measured autos. It is not exactly exceptional to see enormous families going inside little autos. Indians definitely do show a more terrific level of tolerance and continuance. Presently with the economic blast, and with the impersonation of western consumerism, one may get the thought that things may very well go crazy. The country India is quick getting up to speed with the economic development. With the rising patterns in consumerism, Indians are more averse to lessen their using on family conveniences and lifestyle vital elements like training, social insurance and transportation. Then again, a large portion of the Indians may cease from obtaining extravagance things, as they think as of it to be immaterial for their lives. Then again, with the quick economic developments, unique varieties could be seen in the using examples of Indians. The using propensities, particularly in the urban zones are tilting more towards the buy of extravagance things also. In the wake of using on the aforementioned consumption, the higher working class Indians figure out how to make savings of 17% of their salaries. Passing by the aforementioned information, the Indian advertise without a doubt does seem brilliant for further business. Investment patterns The Indian shopper is changing and advancing. Furthermore, so are his utilization and investment designs. As Indian purchasers extricate their tote-strings and are less hesitant to putting resources into offbeat investment choices, the whole investment story is getting redefined. The recognition and use of investment choices in metros and high development towns is high. Individuals are progressively contributing and increasing cash through different investment choices. The common trust industry in India shows an intriguing situation of 48 million financial gurus, a substantial mixed bag of item offerings and concurrence of private, public and outside Asset Managing Companies. Corporates are the predominant mogul amass in the Indian Mutual Fund Industry and they represent very nearly 48% of the aggregate investment (AUM) in the business and they are more turned towards non-value reserves which offer high security liquidity and subsequently their inclination towards Liquid/Money Market and Debt-arranged trusts; The second overwhelming gathering in the business is the Retail financial gurus gathering which represents just about 24% of the aggregate investment (AUM) in the business, while they represent 98% of the 48 million speculators in the business India Government Spending Government Spending in India expanded to 1907.13 INR Billion in the final quarter of 2013 from 1503.10 INR Billion in the second from last quarter of 2013. Government Spending in India arrived at the midpoint of 1282.71 INR Billion from 2004 until 2013, arriving at an unsurpassed-high of 1907.13 INR Billion in the final quarter of 2013 and a record low of 735.82 INR Billion in the second quarter of 2004. Government Spending in India is accounted for by the Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation (MOSPI). Import and export of India Question 1 Suggest, based on your data, how the country can better its economic growth? To make Indias economic development more practical, India needs a second era of changes to accelerate privatization of government possessed organizations, enhance money related and lawful frameworks to ensure investment and modernize its foundation. It is likewise essential to present business cordial assessment changes redesign work laws to the worldwide level and kill administration to pull in more global organizations with more investment. Three real main thrusts can support the Indias economic development and success. Expanded outside immediate investment, Indias smoothness in data innovation and expanded down home utilization due to a developing working class populace. The mixture of outside immediate investment and finesse in data engineering can help in processing many new employments and can make a developing white collar class that thusly can make expanded household utilization. In outcome again outside immediate investments will build to take care of the demand of Indian cu stomers. Indias developing white collar class is the spine of its economy and it is normal that about 50% of its populace will fall into the classification of working class by 2040 with a significant measure of disposable pay. The last period of development hailed from a developing data innovation industry and administration industry. India is turning into a centre point for data innovation and an information-based economy. In view of the accessibility of a profoundly gifted specialized workforce and enhanced security of licensed innovation, numerous western firms moved their innovative work offices to India with a specific end goal to decrease their RD cost. Indias economy is currently underpinned by its skill in data engineering, bigger capital business, enhancing foundation and developing white collar class with expanding disposable wage. Question 2 Why should we be worried about high unemployment? Suggest a government policy that may help improve the employment rate of the country that you have chosen and explain how this policy will help lead to better economic growth High unemployment may demonstrate a discouraged economy, yet there are great reasons why it may not, as well. When new advances create, old ones get abandoned. The truth of the matter is that large portions of our untalented specialists are, exculpate the doltish correlation, in the same way as the stacks of old electronic typewriters that are heaped up in junkyards around the nation. The cutting edge economy neednt bother with them. The point to be agonized over is the an alternate reason of unemployment like retreat. Under retreat Financial strategy can diminish unemployment by serving to build total interest and the rate of economic development. The administration will need to seek after expansionary monetary strategy; this includes cutting charges and expanding government using. Easier expenses increment disposable salary (e.g. VAT slice to 15% in 2008) and in this manner help to expand utilization, prompting higher total interest (AD). With an increment in AD, there will be an expansion in Real GDP (as long as there is extra limit in the economy.) If firms process all the more, there will be an expansion sought after for laborers and thusly lower request-insufficient unemployment. Additionally, with higher total interest and solid economic development, fewer firms will go bankrupt significance fewer occupation misfortunes. Keynes was a solid promoter of expansionary monetary approach throughout a delayed subsidence. He contend that in a retreat, assets (both capital and work) are unmoving, in this manner the legislature ought to mediate and make extra request to decrease unemployment.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Conflict Between Barbarism and Reason in Lord of the Flies Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã William Golding's Lord of the Flies is a carefully constructed fable that was, in Golding's words, "an attempt to trace the defects of society back to the defects of human nature." (Grigson 189). The novel shows a group of English boys reverting to savagery on a Pacific island. The book deals with the conflict between humanity's inner barbarism on one side, and the civilizing influence of reason on the other. Ã Each of the two characters I have chosen to contrast and compare is presented in the novel as the most influential representative of each of the two sides. Jack, the chief of the hunters, representing the hidden human passion and almost animal cruelty, and Ralph, with Piggy and a few other children, who is representing human common sense. When the reader enters the book, they find the whole group of the boys on a small island after they had been evacuated from their hometown and after their plain had crashed leaving them on the island with no grown-ups. Ã At the beginning of the book the position of Jack and Ralph is more or less equal. They are both well-conditioned boys of school age, who find themselves on a lonely island with some other boys of various age, but not older than themselves. They share similar opinions about their situation and its solution. They both want to be rescued and taken home. They both realise that there are a lot of things they must do to survive on the island until all of them get rescued. And lastly, they both are dominant types, but yet at the beginning of the novel they both acknowledge each other's authority and behave to each other in a friendly way. Ã At the return Ralph found himself alone... ... Epstein, E.L. "Notes on Lord of the Flies." Lord of the Flies. U.S.A.: Puntnum Publishing Group, 1954. 185-90. Fitzgerald, John F. and John R. Kayser. "Golding's Lord of the Flies: Pride as Original Sin." Studies in the Novel 24 (1992): 78-88. Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. U.S.A.: Puntnum Publishing Group, 1954. Golding, William. "Lord of the Flies as Fable." Readings on Lord of the Flies. Ed. Bruno Leone. Sand Diego: Green Haven Press, 1997. 88-97. Houston, Daryl L. 1995 "Golding's themes" taken from http://www.lookup.com/Homepages/95416/golding.html The Concise Encyclopedia Of Modern World Literature (1963) ,edited by Geoffrey Grigson, New York, Hawthorn Books Inc., pg. 189-190 Woodward, Kathleen. "The Case for Strict Law and Order." Readings on Lord of the Flies. Ed. Bruno Leone. Sand Diego: Green Haven Press, 1997. 88-97. Ã
Saturday, January 11, 2020
The following chapter provides the foundation for this thesis. It begins with a scope clarification including a definition of the Supply Chain 2020 research initiative, and this thesisÃ¢â¬â¢ position within that overall project. Additionally, this chapter discusses the motivation and methodology behind this paper as well as provides an outline for future chapters. The Supply Chain 2020 Project is a multi-year project initiated by the Center for Transportation & Logistics (CTL) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The major research goal for the Supply Chain 2020 Project is to identify the components that will constitute excellent supply chains in the year 2020. In identifying the strategies, processes, and metrics that will comprise excellent supply chains, Supply Chain 2020 hopes to assist companies in multiple industries in developing strategies to remain competitive in the future. The academic year 2004-2005 is Phase I of the Supply Chain 2020 Project. The scope of the initiative for Phase I is to identify and research excellent supply chains in the aerospace, apparel, automotive, communications, computer, consumer products, distribution, pharmaceutical, resources, and retail industries. Specifically, the scope of this thesis is the retail industry. We will focus on the strategies, operating models, network designs, and supply chain processes that constitute an excellent supply chain in the retail industry. In looking at the components listed above, the existing best practices will be analyzed with respect to how they support and promote the business strategy of the specific companies being analyzed.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Ã¢â¬ËThe Shifting HeartÃ¢â¬â¢ Analytical Essay- The use of Symbolism Ã¢â¬Å"Racism is manÃ¢â¬â¢s gravest threat to man- the maximum of hatred for a minimum of reason.Ã¢â¬ (Abraham J. Heschel, Jewish philosopher). Richard BeynonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËThe Shifting HeartÃ¢â¬â¢ was first published in 1960, and insightfully explores the impact of racism. It is based on the lives of the Bianchis, an Italian family living in the suburb of Collingwood, during the post World War II immigration boom. As a literary device, symbolism is the representation of a concept through underlying meanings of objects. Beynon portrays the message, Ã¢â¬Ëracism is a result of intolerance, not the specific races alone,Ã¢â¬â¢ through the use of symbolism as well as the various racial attitudes of characters. The setÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Playing Ã¢â¬ËWaltzing MatildaÃ¢â¬â¢ demonstrates how Poppa longs to be accepted as an equal Australian citizen. The tempo of this song is slow, which suggests mourning or sorrow, and this tone underlines his yearning to be re cognised as a normal human being. But by also playing Ã¢â¬ËSanta Lucia,Ã¢â¬â¢ it links his connection and pride to his Italian background- a fast tempo indicates joy or happiness. Of all the possible instruments Poppa could own, Beynon specifically chose a harmonica, which includes the word Ã¢â¬ËharmonyÃ¢â¬â¢ in itÃ¢â¬â¢s name, signifying PoppaÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to live harmoniously with others. Poppa is trapped between two diverse cultures; he is detached from his Italian heritage, and is not openly considered as an Australian, so he does not belong to either culture. As a result, Poppa is isolated from the community, and to further highlight this seclusion, the play is only set within the confines of their family home. Poppa plays both an Italian and Australian song throughout Ã¢â¬ËThe Shifting Heart,Ã¢â¬â¢ within close intervals of each other, demonstrating both cultures uniting. At the start of Act III Poppa witness another petty action from the neighbour stage righ t, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦remnants of rubbish comes over fence R.- Two large cabbage leavesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Act III stage directions p.83). In response to this, Poppa drops his harmonica and stands on it, destroying the object. This reaction is important to the playÃ¢â¬â¢s messageShow MoreRelatedThe Problem Of Judicial Review3462 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesDangerous Branch as a monologue on the problematic counter-majoritarian nature of judicial review in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s constitutional democracy, then the central question that Bickel posed is: Ã¢â¬Å"who should authoritatively interpret the US Constitution?Ã¢â¬ This essay contends that BickelÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis is instead dominated by a different question, namely: Ã¢â¬Å"how should the U.S. Supreme Court interpret the Constitution?Ã¢â¬ At first blush this suggests that the concerns and principles animating The Least Dangerous BranchRead MoreDell11802 Words Ã |Ã 48 PagesANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Medium REF: 71 OBJ: 03-01 TYPE: comprehension NOT: AACSB: Business Knowledge Analytical Skills | Management: Creation of Value | Dierdorff Rubin: Managing strategy and innovation 2. People are a critical resource for helping organizations learn how to continuously innovate. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019
Though Theodore Roethke firmly lived his life in the modernist age, his works strongly echo the transcendentalist way of writing comparable to Waldo or Emerson; however, he personalized this form of writing through his own personal experiences. The foundations of his style of writing have strong origins in his childhood, where his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s naturalistic lifestyle inspired him and where he developed a deep connection to the natural world through the greenhouses that his family managed. Due to this, one will almost always see the use of natural imagery in his writing to express more complex ideas. As one would expect, his poem Ã¢â¬Å"The WakingÃ¢â¬ is no exception. In this work, Roethke uses the interaction between the speaker and the natural world in order to embody the progression of cognitive awareness throughout the span of a single human life and to depict how one understands such knowledge through the senses, experience, and thought. Roethke opens the poem with the seemingly oxymoronic line Ã¢â¬Å"I wake to sleep, and take my waking slowÃ¢â¬ (1). At first, one may wonder, how does one wake-up to fall asleep? For these are naturally opposing ideas; however, here Roethke is not using literal definitions. Through the word Ã¢â¬Å"wake,Ã¢â¬ he is more likely referencing birth and the eventual enlightenment that one gains through life. Conversely, Ã¢â¬Å"sleepÃ¢â¬ represents death and, thus, the ceasing of intellectual gain. So, the first part of the line implies a dual meaning. Simply, the speaker is born only